$8 Trillion Alternative Energy Boom Is a Win for Copper
Here’s a bit of energizing news: In 2014, for the first time in four decades, the global economy grew along with energy demand without an increase in global carbon emissions.
By Frank Holmes
CEO and Chief Investment Officer
U.S. Global Investors
Here’s a bit of energizing news: In 2014, for the first time in four decades, the global economy grew along with energy demand without an increase in global carbon emissions.
That’s according to energy policy group REN21’s just-released Renewables 2015 Global Status Report, which attributes this stabilization to “increased penetration of renewable energy and to improvements in energy efficiency.”
What this means is that as the world’s population continues to grow, and as more people in developing and emerging countries gain access to electricity, the role alternative energy sources such as wind, solar and geothermal play should skyrocket. Between now and 2040, a massive $8 trillion will be spent globally on renewables, about two thirds of all energy spending, according to Bloomberg New Energy Finance. Solar power alone is expected to draw $3.7 trillion.
This is good news indeed for copper, necessary for the conduction of electricity in all energy technologies, whether they be traditional or alternative. The use of some carbon-emitting fossil fuels—coal, for instance—will likely drop off over the years, but copper will remain an irreplaceable component in our ever-expanding energy needs.
Global copper consumption is poised to increase not just because electricity demand is growing. New energy technologies typically require more of the red metal than traditional sources. Each megawatt of wind power capacity, for instance, uses an average of 3.6 tonnes of copper. Electric trolleys, buses and subway cars use about 2,300 pounds of copper apiece. Where we’ll see the most significant growth, though, is in the production of hybrid and electric cars, which use two to three times more copper than internal combustion engines.
Leading the way in electric vehicle technologies, of course, is billionaire entrepreneur Elon Musk’s Tesla Motors, whose $5-billion Gigafactory is currently under construction in Reno, Nevada. When production begins on its lithium-ion batteries, it will consume biblical amounts of base metals and other raw materials—so much, in fact, that some analysts question whether world supply can meet demand. Besides needing a constant stream of lithium and nickel, the factory will consume a staggering 17 million tonnes of copper, 7,000 tonnes of cobalt (today, worldwide supply is 110,000 tonnes), 25,000 tonnes of lithium (about a fifth of worldwide supply), and 126,000 tonnes of raw graphite (a little over a third of global supply). To keep up with such demand, nine new graphite mines will reportedly need to be opened.
This should come as welcome news for industry-leading base metals mining companies such as Freeport-McMoRan, Rio Tinto, Lundin Mining and Glencore, the last two of which we own in our Global Resources Fund (PSPFX).
Airlines Stocks Could Climb as High as 50 Percent
Automobiles aren’t the only types of transportation that are looking to renewables. The world’s first circumnavigation of the globe by an aircraft powered entirely by the sun is in its third month. The wings of Solar Impulse 2, whose span comes slightly under that of an Airbus A380, is covered by over 11,600 photovoltaic cells. Next year, Alaska Airlines plans to demonstrate a flight using only renewable jet fuel made from forest residues.
As for the entire airline industry, a recent Barron’s article announces that within 12 months, shares of the nation’s top four carriers could rise as much as 50 percent. Among the changes that “have left the industry in the best financial shape in decades,” according to Barron’s, are “consolidation, cost cuts and fee hikes,” not to mention cheaper fuel.
Demand in China Cooling, but Eurozone Could Pick Up the Slack
To be sure, copper and other base metals face some strong headwinds right now, not least of which is the strong U.S. dollar. As you can see, the red metal and the greenback have an inverse relationship.
The Thomson Reuters GFMS Survey estimates that the incentive price for new copper production is $3.50 per pound, a level unseen since March 2013. Although global copper mine production increased around 1.5 percent year-over-year in the first quarter of 2015, we might see a copper supply deficit in the next 10 years.
Many base metals, copper especially, rely heavily on orders from China, the top purchaser of the red metal. The world’s second biggest economy accounts for 40 percent of all copper consumption, but this figure might be threatened the longer its manufacturing sector remains at lukewarm levels. Although the preliminary purchasing manager’s index (PMI) reading rose slightly in June to 49.6, it’s still below the important expansion threshold of 50.
About 60 percent of the copper China purchases goes toward the property sector, an area that’s finally starting to show signs of life after almost a year of falling prices.
A bright spot for copper demand, however, is the eurozone, whose own flash PMI hit a 49-month high of 54.1. The expansion was led by Germany and France, which saw output rising at its sharpest rate since August 2011.
Copper Keeping It Cool for Billions Around the World
In the coming years, more and more people all over the globe will gain access to electricity, a growing percentage of which we will derive from renewable sources. In an interview with The Gold Report, my friend Gianni Kovacevic—whose 2014 book, My Electrician Drives a Porsche?, is an indispensable and entertaining resource on this topic—reminds us that by 2035, nearly 2 billion additional people will have an electricity bill.
Think about the impact that will have on all of our resources. Many of these people live close to the equator. When they begin to have more wealth, they live in more comfort. One of the first things they acquire is an air conditioning unit, or a refrigerator as they eat a protein-based diet. However, whether it’s a need or a want, the backbone of their future consumption footprint is energy, and, more specifically, electricity.
And along for the ride, whether in fossil-fuel power plants or wind turbines, will be copper.
- The major market indices finished mixed this week. The Dow Jones Industrial Average fell 0.38 percent. The S&P 500 Stock Index fell 0.40 percent, while the Nasdaq Composite fell 0.71 percent. The Russell 2000 small capitalization index fell 0.38 percent this week.
- The Hang Seng Composite fell 0.47 percent this week; while Taiwan gained 2.80 percent and the KOSPI rose 2.12 percent.
- The 10-year Treasury bond yield rose 22 basis points to 2.47 percent.
Domestic Equity Market
- Telecommunications was the best-performing sector in a down week for the S&P 500. The S&P 500 Telecommunications Services Index rose 1.16 percent this week.
- Personal spending rose 0.9 percent month-over-month in May, the highest reading since August 2009. Consumer-oriented data is becoming increasingly strong.
- New and existing home sales continue to show improvement in the U.S. housing sector. The S&P 500 Homebuilding Index rose 4.04 percent this week.
- Utilities was the worst-performing sector in the S&P 500 this week as government yields continued to rise. The S&P 500 Utilities Index fell 2.42 percent this week.
- Durable goods orders in the U.S. declined for the second straight month in May. The continued weakness of this indicator is cause for concern for industrials.
- The U.S. Markit Manufacturing Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI) fell to 53.4 from 54 in the month of June, according to preliminary results.
- The ISM Manufacturing PMI for the month of June will be released next week and is expected to rise to 53.1 from 52.8.
- The U.S. Supreme Court defended the existence of the federal exchanges in “Obamacare” this week, a tremendous victory for the legislation. Health care companies should benefit from this decision.
- The University of Michigan Consumer Sentiment Index rose to 96.1 from 94.6 for the month of June. Retail and other consumer-oriented stocks should benefit.
- Year-over-year growth in average hourly earnings for the month of June will be released next week. Analysts are expecting no increase in the growth rate from the prior month, a negative sign for the U.S. economy.
- Core consumer prices, as indicated by the PCE Core Price Deflator, showed weak growth for the month of May.
- The German IFO Business Climate Index fell to 107.4 from 108.5 for the month of June.
- Greece and its creditors made significant progress this week as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) repayment deadline inches closer. Resolution to this drawn-out issue would be the single biggest benefit to the eurozone’s recovery.
- Germany’s manufacturing purchasing managers’ index (PMI) data improved for the month of June. The center of the eurozone, Germany, is showing signs of economic improvement.
- China’s manufacturing PMI also improved. The recent data for the month of June should ease investors’ concerns that the economy is on the wrong track.
- German and U.S. yields jumped higher this week. Rising interest rates are creating headwinds for fixed income.
- One persistently weak area of the global economy is the materials sector. Metals prices remain depressed as seen by the London Metals Exchange Index.
- M3 money supply growth in the eurozone fell from its previous level. With the massive bond purchasing program underway, investors would hope to see a continued rise in the growth rate of the money supply.
- If Greece and its creditors are unable to come to an agreement, the economic repercussions could cause a flight to safety, pushing down both U.S. and German bond yields.
- Eurozone banks are lending at the fastest rate in three years as government authorities flood the region with ample liquidity. A more constructive lending environment should be considerably positive for the eurozone economy.
- Bloomberg’s consumer comfort data point for the month of June will be released next week. The number is expected to increase.
- With the U.S. economy remaining strong and certain inflation indicators improving, it is becoming increasingly likely that the Federal Reserve will hike rates sometime this year.
- Month-over-month German retail sales for June are expected to come in flat next week. A slowdown in consumer spending in Germany would be negative for the Euro-area’s recovery.
- Germany’s year-over-year consumer price index (CPI) growth is expected to fall to 0.5 percent, according to a Bloomberg survey of analysts.
- The Shanghai Gold Exchange is expected to receive approval from its central bank for a yuan-denominated gold fix soon according to Reuters. If the yuan fix takes off, China could draw buyers in the mainland and foreign suppliers to pay the local price, making the London fix less relevant in the world’s biggest bullion market. Additionally, the Shanghai Gold Exchange is in discussions with the CME Group about listing each other’s contracts on their respective exchanges, according to the exchange’s vice-president.
- Trading volume on the Shanghai Gold Exchange for the benchmark contract soared this week to the highest on record, according to data on Bloomberg, going back to 2002. The Shanghai Composite Index dropped more than 10 percent in the last two trading days of this week and is down nearly 20 percent from its highs.
- United States Mint bullion sales have been further propelled higher this week. With several days more remaining in June, gold sales at 59,000 ounces are the highest since January and silver sales at 2.5 million ounces are the strongest since April.
- After gold rallied to above $1,200 last week on the softer Fed outlook on interest rates, gold prices fell for the first four trading sessions and only moved slightly higher on Friday.
- South Africa’s Chamber of Mines said it gave workers a 10 percent pay raise in 2013 when the actual increase only amounted to 8 percent, according to the National Union of Mineworkers General Secretary. The “mistake” has eroded trust in the South African wage negotiations.
- Midway Gold filed for bankruptcy protection after suspending mining activities at Pan Gold Mine in Nevada. The company listed assets of $82.5 million and debt of $55.9 million as of June 21 in Chapter 11 documents. The company could owe creditors as much as $500 million.
- Standard Chartered announced bullion could rise to $1,300 per ounce by year end as the market begins to contemplate the impact of a Fed rate cycle that’s likely to be far more gradual and peak far earlier than normal tightening cycles. Furthermore, Credit Suisse said gold demand in Asia is likely to be more robust in Q3 and Q4 due to increased physical gold demand from Asia, central bank purchases, and declining supply that should offset the stronger dollar. Lastly, Barclays sees Q3 as bullion’s weakest, given rate hike expectations and a weak price floor. They see a mild recovery thereafter.
- Incrementum AG published their ninth rendition of “In Gold we Trust 2015” this past week. The publication provides an encompassing analysis of the global gold market and its relationship to governmental monetary and debt policies around the world. While we believe gold has a long-term role in a portfolio for diversification, we are now approaching what could be one of the most opportune times of the year to add gold and/or silver to your asset mix as July is historically a low point in the calendar year, in terms of prices.
- Gold demand in China may get a significant boost if the country’s stock rally fades. The Shanghai Composite Index has plunged 20 percent over the last couple of weeks, the fastest pace among global equity gauges and the most since 2008, amid concern valuations were unsustainable. About $1.3 trillion was wiped off mainland Chinese equities last week, more than the value of Australia’s entire stock market. Also, Fidelity’s Ian Spreadbury recommended owning gold, silver, and physical cash saying that there is no liquidity left and the idea of efficient markets facilitating reliable price discovery is an anachronism. He said this is the result of high frequency trading, an ineffective post-crisis regulatory regime, and central banks that have commandeered sovereign debt markets.
- A study by GMP Securities suggests the cost cutting programs entered into by most major and mid-tier gold mining companies may have largely gone as far as they can go. If metal prices don’t recover it could prove to be difficult to attain further growth in profit margins for the miners.
- Goldman Sachs and Societe General fear that contagion may be a bigger issue than people anticipate should Greece exit the eurozone. They highlight that the damage resulting from a breaking of the integrity of the euro would not be fixed by monetary policy alone. The failure to keep Greece in the euro would demonstrate the limitations of the growth and fiscal arrangements of the current euro area policy framework, offer a precedent to other governments and their oppositions, and crystallize the convertibility risk on all euro area securities.
- Sibanye Gold spoke out that the anticipated electricity price hikes, as much as 25 percent, by Eskom in South Africa will hit the mining industry very hard. Sibanye may be forced to close five of the company’s 18 shafts, effecting likely around 8,000 direct and indirect jobs. Undoubtedly, if such a tariff rate is put in force, all the miners in South Africa would be forced to make some difficult decisions regarding the operation of their mines.
- Fertilizer stocks bounced back this week after falling nearly 10 percent the prior week. The Bloomberg Leaders Fertilizers Index rose 2.97 percent this week.
- Integrated oil stocks outperformed their respective energy peers this week as most of the damage was done to upstream energy producers. The Bloomberg Global Integrated Oils Valuation Peers Index rose 0.9 percent this week.
- Packaged food stocks were a relative outperformer in a primarily down market this week and strong dollar environment. The S&P 500 Packaged Foods Index rose 0.07 percent this week.
- Rail stocks fell sharply this week as global growth concerns, particularly concerning China, remain prevalent. The S&P Supercomposite Railroads Index fell 3.96 percent this week.
- Precious metals stocks underperformed this week as the continued strength of U.S. economic data affirms the notion that the Fed will raise rates sometime this year. The Global X Silver Miners ETF and the NYSE Arca Gold Miners Index fell 3.83 and 2.97 percent, respectively.
- Utilities was the worst performing sector this week as the yield on U.S. government 10-year notes spike up again. The S&P 500 Utilities Index fell 2.42 percent this week.
- The Baker Hughes crude oil rig count declined again this week. With each decline in the rig count, WTI crude oil supply and demand dynamics move closer into balance.
- With the dollar still elevated at disturbingly high levels, defensive areas such as forest and paper stocks should be a good place to weather the negative consequences.
- Copper traders are bullish according to a Bloomberg survey this week. The higher than expected preliminary manufacturing PMI reading from China comforted investors that growth is coming back.
- Oil is still going nowhere. WTI crude has hugged the $60 per barrel mark for a few weeks now. Without any significant pick up in the price of oil, energy stocks will underperform.
- Gold stocks continue to give investors cause for concern as there is more consensus surrounding a rate hike by the Fed sometime this year.
- Moody’s cut Peabody Energy Corp.’s credit rating this week, citing weaker than expected coal prices as the main reason. The coal industry remains considerably depressed.
- Greek equities capped off a tremendous week on Friday, as investors speculate a deal could be around the corner. Rhetoric from both sides of the table has eased and Greek creditors have proposed a multi-stage funding plan, contingent on certain policy changes. Euro-area leaders will meet over the weekend in an attempt to finalize an agreement before Greece’s IMF repayment next Tuesday. The Athens Stock Exchange General Index closed up 16.03 percent this week.
- Hungarian stocks rallied this week after the central bank cut rates once again. The move came in an attempt to further boost inflationary pressures. The Budapest Stock Exchange Index rose 1.57 percent this week.
- Polish equities finished the week in the green as concerns over Greece eased and the country saw a decline in unemployment. The WIG 20 Index rose 1.50 percent this week.
- China’s mainland equity market saw another sharp down week. Investors are adjusting their margin accounts due to fears of being overleveraged. The Shanghai Stock Exchange Composite Index fell 6.37 percent this week.
- Russian equities fell this week as the country’s macro outlook remains shaky at best. The MICEX Index fell 1.12 percent this week.
- Egyptian stocks retreated for the fifth consecutive week as investors’ optimism over Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s reform agenda dissipates. The Egyptian Exchange EGX 30 Index fell 1.99 percent this week.
- The eurozone had constructive preliminary results for its manufacturing purchasing managers’ index (PMI) numbers in June. The Markit Eurozone Manufacturing and Services PMIs rose to 52.5 and 54.4, respectively.
- Although some could argue the situation as a threat rather than an opportunity, the ongoing negotiations between Greece and its creditors are setting the stage for what could be a tremendous rally in the struggling economy’s markets. If a deal is indeed reached that is.
- A near 20-percent pullback in China A-Share equities over the last two weeks occurred in the context of zero change in government policy. While volatility is higher in the current bull market due to unprecedented use of margin financing, day-to-day correlation is extremely high at 97-percent, with the previous 2006-2007 advance. Liberalization of cross-border mutual fund offerings, favorable July seasonality, an enduring policy easing cycle, unachieved structural reform goals, and eventual inclusion into global indices, all remain near- and long-term catalysts for a resumption of ascent in China A-Shares. This bodes well for the undervalued H-Shares.
- The dollar remains resilient and emerging market currencies are failing to garner any momentum as shown by the MSCI Emerging Markets Currency Index.
- Russia remains a particularly frightening investment as the country’s economy continues to weaken.
- A recent wave of privatization of U.S.-traded Chinese companies (to re-list in the A-Share market), could face near-term challenges from an investor sentiment perspective. This view comes given the severe drawdown in the A-Share Index for small ventures, which veteran investor Bill Gross arguably targeted in early June as the next “short of a lifetime.”
|S&P Basic Materials||310.00||-5.85||-1.85%|
|Hang Seng Composite Index||3,686.66||-17.43||-0.47%|
|Korean KOSPI Index||2,090.26||+43.30||+2.12%|
|S&P/TSX Canadian Gold Index||151.58||-3.26||-2.11%|
|Natural Gas Futures||2.77||-0.04||-1.53%|
|10-Yr Treasury Bond||2.47||+0.22||+9.52%|
|S&P Basic Materials||310.00||-8.22||-2.58%|
|Hang Seng Composite Index||3,686.66||-281.21||-7.09%|
|Korean KOSPI Index||2,090.26||-17.24||-0.82%|
|S&P/TSX Canadian Gold Index||151.58||-11.94||-7.30%|
|Natural Gas Futures||2.77||-0.04||-1.49%|
|10-Yr Treasury Bond||2.47||+0.35||+16.20%|
|S&P Basic Materials||310.00||+4.66||+1.53%|
|Hang Seng Composite Index||3,686.66||+316.29||+9.38%|
|Korean KOSPI Index||2,090.26||+70.46||+3.49%|
|S&P/TSX Canadian Gold Index||151.58||-8.81||-5.49%|
|Natural Gas Futures||2.77||+0.18||+7.07%|
|10-Yr Treasury Bond||2.47||+0.51||+26.10%|
Please consider carefully a fund’s investment objectives, risks, charges and expenses. For this and other important information, obtain a fund prospectus by visiting www.usfunds.com or by calling 1-800-US-FUNDS (1-800-873-8637). Read it carefully before investing. Distributed by U.S. Global Brokerage, Inc.
All opinions expressed and data provided are subject to change without notice. Some of these opinions may not be appropriate to every investor.
Foreign and emerging market investing involves special risks such as currency fluctuation and less public disclosure, as well as economic and political risk. By investing in a specific geographic region, a regional fund’s returns and share price may be more volatile than those of a less concentrated portfolio.
The Emerging Europe Fund invests more than 25 percent of its investments in companies principally engaged in the oil & gas or banking industries. The risk of concentrating investments in this group of industries will make the fund more susceptible to risk in these industries than funds which do not concentrate their investments in an industry and may make the fund’s performance more volatile.
Because the Global Resources Fund concentrates its investments in a specific industry, the fund may be subject to greater risks and fluctuations than a portfolio representing a broader range of industries.
Gold, precious metals, and precious minerals funds may be susceptible to adverse economic, political or regulatory developments due to concentrating in a single theme. The prices of gold, precious metals, and precious minerals are subject to substantial price fluctuations over short periods of time and may be affected by unpredicted international monetary and political policies. We suggest investing no more than 5 percent to 10 percent of your portfolio in these sectors.
Bond funds are subject to interest-rate risk; their value declines as interest rates rise. Tax-exempt income is federal income tax free. A portion of this income may be subject to state and local income taxes, and if applicable, may subject certain investors to the Alternative Minimum Tax as well. The Near-Term Tax Free Fund may invest up to 20% of its assets in securities that pay taxable interest. Income or fund distributions attributable to capital gains are usually subject to both state and federal income taxes. The Near-Term Tax Free Fund may be exposed to risks related to a concentration of investments in a particular state or geographic area. These investments present risks resulting from changes in economic conditions of the region or issuer.
Investing in real estate securities involves risks including the potential loss of principal resulting from changes in property value, interest rates, taxes and changes in regulatory requirements.
Past performance does not guarantee future results.
Some link(s) above may be directed to a third-party website(s). U.S. Global Investors does not endorse all information supplied by this/these website(s) and is not responsible for its/their content.
These market comments were compiled using Bloomberg and Reuters financial news.
Fund portfolios are actively managed, and holdings may change daily. Holdings are reported as of the most recent quarter-end. Holdings as a percentage of net assets as of 03/31/2015:
Holmes Macro Trends Fund, 1.14%
Peabody Energy Corp.: 0.00%
Global X Silver Miners ETF: 0.00%
Midway Gold: 0.00%
Sibanye Gold: 0.00%
Alaska Air Group Inc.: Global Resources Fund, 0.21%; Holmes MacroTrends Fund, 1.42%
Tesla Motors 0.00%
Rio Tinto: 0.00%
Lundin Mining Corp: Gold and Precious Metals Fund, 0.64%
*The above-mentioned indices are not total returns. These returns reflect simple appreciation only and do not reflect dividend reinvestment.
The Dow Jones Industrial Average is a price-weighted average of 30 blue chip stocks that are generally leaders in their industry.
The S&P 500 Stock Index is a widely recognized capitalization-weighted index of 500 common stock prices in U.S. companies.
The Nasdaq Composite Index is a capitalization-weighted index of all Nasdaq National Market and SmallCap stocks.
The Russell 2000 Index® is a U.S. equity index measuring the performance of the 2,000 smallest companies in the Russell 3000®, a widely recognized small-cap index.
The Hang Seng Composite Index is a market capitalization-weighted index that comprises the top 200 companies listed on Stock Exchange of Hong Kong, based on average market cap for the 12 months.
The Taiwan Stock Exchange Index is a capitalization-weighted index of all listed common shares traded on the Taiwan Stock Exchange.
The Korea Stock Price Index is a capitalization-weighted index of all common shares and preferred shares on the Korean Stock Exchanges.
The Philadelphia Stock Exchange Gold and Silver Index (XAU) is a capitalization-weighted index that includes the leading companies involved in the mining of gold and silver.
The U.S. Trade Weighted Dollar Index provides a general indication of the international value of the U.S. dollar.
The S&P/TSX Canadian Gold Capped Sector Index is a modified capitalization-weighted index, whose equity weights are capped 25 percent and index constituents are derived from a subset stock pool of S&P/TSX Composite Index stocks.
The S&P 500 Energy Index is a capitalization-weighted index that tracks the companies in the energy sector as a subset of the S&P 500.
The S&P 500 Materials Index is a capitalization-weighted index that tracks the companies in the material sector as a subset of the S&P 500.
The S&P 500 Financials Index is a capitalization-weighted index. The index was developed with a base level of 10 for the 1941-43 base period.
The S&P 500 Industrials Index is a Materials Index is a capitalization-weighted index that tracks the companies in the industrial sector as a subset of the S&P 500.
The S&P 500 Consumer Discretionary Index is a capitalization-weighted index that tracks the companies in the consumer discretionary sector as a subset of the S&P 500.
The S&P 500 Information Technology Index is a capitalization-weighted index that tracks the companies in the information technology sector as a subset of the S&P 500.
The S&P 500 Consumer Staples Index is a Materials Index is a capitalization-weighted index that tracks the companies in the consumer staples sector as a subset of the S&P 500.
The S&P 500 Utilities Index is a capitalization-weighted index that tracks the companies in the utilities sector as a subset of the S&P 500.
The S&P 500 Healthcare Index is a capitalization-weighted index that tracks the companies in the healthcare sector as a subset of the S&P 500.
The S&P 500 Telecom Index is a Materials Index is a capitalization-weighted index that tracks the companies in the telecom sector as a subset of the S&P 500.
The S&P 500 Telecommunications Services Index is a capitalization-weighted index. The S&P 500 Homebuilding Index is a capitalization-weighted index The S&P 500 Packaged Foods Index is a capitalization-weighted index that tracks companies operating in the packaged foods and meat industry.
The S&P Supercomposite Railroads Index is a capitalization-weighted index of railroad companies.
The NYSE Arca Gold Miners Index is a modified market capitalization weighted index comprised of publicly traded companies involved primarily in the mining for gold and silver.
The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is one of the most widely recognized price measures for tracking the price of a market basket of goods and services purchased by individuals. The weights of components are based on consumer spending patterns.
The London Metals Exchange Index (LMEX) is an index on the six designated LME primary metals contracts denominated in US dollars. Weightings of the six metals are derived from global production volume and trade liquidity averaged over the preceding five-year period. The index value is calculated as the sum of the prices for the three qualifying months multiplies by the corresponding weights, multiplied by a constant. The PCE Deflator is a nation-wide indicator of the average increase in prices for all domestic personal consumption.
The Markit Manufacturing Purchasing Managers’ Index measures the performance of the manufacturing sector and is derived from a survey of 600 industrial companies.
ISM Manufacturing PMI The ISM manufacturing composite index is a diffusion index calculated from five of the eight sub-components of a monthly survey of purchasing managers at roughly 300 manufacturing firms from 21 industries in all 50 states.
The University of Michigan Sentiment Index is a survey of consumer confidence conducted by the University of Michigan. The report, released on the tenth of each month, gives a snapshot of whether or not consumers are willing to spend money.
The IFO Business Climate Index is a leading indicator for economic activity in Germany.
The Bloomberg Global Leaders Fertilizers Index is a capitalization weighted index comprised of companies from the fertilizers industry.
The Bloomberg Global Integrated Oils Valuation Peers Index is an equal-weighted index composed of major oil and gas companies.
The Athens Stock Exchange General Index is a capitalization-weighted index of Greek stocks listed on the Athens Stock Exchange.
The Budapest Stock Exchange Index is a capitalization-weighted index adjusted for free float. The index tracks the daily price-only performance of large, actively traded shares on the Budapest Stock Exchange.
The WIG 20 Index is a modified capitalization-weighted index of 20 Polish stocks which are listed on the main market.
The Shanghai Composite Index (SSE) is an index of all stocks that trade on the Shanghai Stock Exchange.
The MICEX Index is the real-time cap-weighted Russian composite index. It comprises 30 most liquid stocks of Russian largest and most developed companies from 10 main economy sectors. The MICEX Index was launched on September 22, 1997, base value 100. The MICEX Index is calculated and disseminated by the MICEX Stock Exchange, the main Russian stock exchange.
The EGX 30 Index is a major stock market index which tracks the performance of 30 most liquid stocks traded on the Egyptian Exchange.
The Markit Eurozone Manufacturing and Services PMI is based on survey data collected from a representative panel of around 5,000 manufacturing and services firms from the eurozone.
The MSCI Emerging Markets Currency Index tracks the performance of twenty five emerging market currencies relative to the U.S. dollar.
The Purchasing Manager’s Index is an indicator of the economic health of the manufacturing sector. The PMI index is based on five major indicators: new orders, inventory levels, production, supplier deliveries and the employment environment.
Latest ResourcesView All
November 25, 2022Learn More
November 18, 2022Learn More
November 14, 2022Learn More
November 11, 2022Learn More